A tournament is a competition involving a group of players designed to produce an overall skill ranking of the involved players, typically by arranging them into a structured bracket where players engage in individual matches to raise or lower their ranking.
The Super Smash Bros. series has seen a large devoted competitive community since Matt Deezie established the fundamentals of competitive Smash since the Tournament Go series in April 2002 with Super Smash Bros. Melee. Melee is considered the most suited for high level play out of the four Smash Bros. games. Brawl also had a large tournament scene for its first five years but it has been declining since 2013, as competitive Smash players were not used to the slower gameplay and metagame, with many players preferring to go back to playing the faster-paced and combo-oriented gameplay of Melee instead. Smash 4 is more successful than Brawl was in competitive play, fixing many of Brawl's unfavorable gameplay mechanics, and having faster and more balanced gameplay. The online community for the original Super Smash Bros. was not as large during its popular days and thus did not give rise to a significant tournament scene, though competitive Smash 64 still has a small competitive following, and play does take place over the Internet through services like Kaillera. Project M, a Brawl mod to make the design and gameplay like Melee's, is also seen in some tournaments.
Locations and sizes
Tournaments are held regularly in many regions all over the world, with the largest community centered in the United States, which has not only the largest and generally most talented playerbase, but also the largest tournaments, such as Apex and EVO, which attract competition from all over the world (a feat other regions have yet to achieve). Canada, northern and western Europe (in particular the Scandinavian countries), Australia and Japan have large Smash communities as well. Smaller communities exist in Latin and South America and the Pacific Rim. Major areas of tournament activity in the United States are centered around California, the Maryland/Virginia area, New York, and Florida, though most states enjoy an active tournament calendar year round.
Various terms exist for describing the size, frequency, and intent of a tournament. They include:
Prices and fees
Most tournaments require an entry fee from participants to play. These prices vary by region and tournament size, and differ for each type of event being entered: most bi-weekly events in Southern California charge $5 for singles and $10 total for a team, while similarly-sized east coast United States tournaments usually charge a higher amount. Entry fees go into a "pot" for an event and are awarded to the winners of that event in pre-announced amounts, usually a percentage of the pot (common payout amounts are 60% for first, 30% for second, 10% for third). Tournament directors will usually charge an extra amount, commonly referred to as a venue fee (or take money out of the pot), to help pay for any additional costs to use the venue. Venue fees usually cost about five to ten dollars, though nationals can have venue fees up to $50, especially if the tournament runs over multiple days.
Legal issues involving the exchange of money
Some schools and other public venues consider gaming tournaments a form of gambling and ban it as such. All tournament directors are encouraged to check with potential venues to make sure they are tolerant of players paying to enter. Several well-known tournaments have had to cancel events when a public official discovered that money was changing hands between players at the event.
Smash Bros. tournaments are often thought to be illegal in Iowa under §725.7 of the Iowa Code, which states that it is unlawful for any one to "participate in a game for any sum of money or other property of any value" other than those outlined in subsection 2. However nobody is known to have been arrested due participating in an esports tournament. There have been several attempts to pass legislation to explicitly legalize fantasy sports in the state, which may have implications for esports as well. House Bill 165, introduced to the Iowa House of Representatives in January 2015 attempts to create a definition for "Bona Fide Contests", that among other additions, would legalize paying tournaments for games “by player-directed movement with a video or electronic gaming device”. The current law allows for video machine golf tournament games, but not necessarily any other type of video game.
There are four bracket formats used by modern Smash tournaments:
Double elimination bracket
The double elimination format is by far the most common bracket type at tournaments. A double elimination bracket is derived from the single elimination format but is split into two sections, the winners' and losers' brackets (W and L for short). The W bracket is almost identical to a single elimination bracket; however, losing in the W bracket does not eliminate a player from the tournament. They instead drop into the L bracket at a position that reflects how far they advanced into the W bracket. Anyone who loses in the L bracket (their second loss of the event) is eliminated.
The first round of the L bracket pairs two players who just lost in the first round of the W bracket. The winner of this set then plays a player who drops from the second round of W bracket due to a loss there; the player is placed in the bracket at the letter/number corresponding to the set in W bracket where they lost. (In the images at right, Champ lost at W-A and dropped into L-A.) Further L bracket rounds alternate between these two set setups: two players who survived earlier L bracket rounds play, and the winner of that faces someone dropping from W bracket.
There are three sets in a double-elimination bracket that are of special importance to participants:
These three sets usually require a greater number of individual games to be played before determining a winner. Standard tournament rules have most sets being a set of "best two of three", while the three sets above are often sets of "best three of five."
Every player is guaranteed at least two sets in a double elimination bracket, making it a popular alternative to the single elimination format. The format also affords a player the chance to make a comeback after losing once in W bracket, as well as provide a greater difference in placing, to aid with ranking players' tournament performance.
The size of a double elimination bracket is determined in the same fashion as a single elimination bracket. Half the remaining players are eliminated every two rounds of the L bracket. The total number of sets for an n-size bracket is equal to 2(n-1); thus, a double elimination bracket takes exactly twice as long to complete as a single elimination bracket (assuming the bracket is not reset).
The following is the list of placements and which stage the player was eliminated. # refers to the maximum number of players who may share the placement. EVO uses a similar model for their events.
Round Robin is a tournament format where every player in the tournament plays every single other player. There are no brackets, no eliminations, everyone just keeps playing until every matchup has been played.
Pools contain a subset of an entrant field, also informally known as "groups". Using this mechanism, players are split into appropiately-sized pools and do a "mini-tournament" with other participants in their pool using the pre-announced pool format, with the most common format being round-robin to yield perfectly accurate results and to give less experienced players more tournament matches. After all matches have finished, players are either seeded or eliminated in their pool based on their performance. Pools are usually used to narrow a large entrant field into a smaller subset for double elimination bracket play or for another round of pools, though they are occasionally just used to seed players in bracket without elimination. Examples of this method are:
In sufficiently large tournaments, 2 or more rounds of pools would be adequate to useful. Examples are:
Pools are usually only employed at large tournaments. N number of entrants are split into P number of pools, and the top Y finishers in each pool are either placed into a second round of pools or seeded into a double elimination bracket, which proceeds normally. The number of entrants for the subsequent round or bracket is P*Y. Placing well in a pool gives a player a better position in a bracket or the next round of pools, giving extra incentive to strive for the top pool positions. Tournaments using pools will result in a significantly larger amount of games being played than without them. There is a total of B(B-1)/2 sets per pool, with B players per pool. Thus a round of round-robin pools with N participants total requires a grand total of N(B-1)/2 sets.
The Swiss System, as used heavily in the professional chess world which guarantees each player the same number of matches and attempts to match players against others of similar skill throughout the tournament. Swiss system tournaments are rare in the Smash community due to their complexity and the large number of matches they create.
Players are assigned matches in the first round either randomly or based on some method of seeding (an attempt to rank players in order of skill before the tournament starts). Winning this set gives a player 1 "point", and losing does not give any points. Each successive round involves pairing two players with the same number of points (attempting to avoid repeat matchups), playing out those matches, assigning points, and repeating for the next round. Swiss systems generally run until only a single person has no losses; this will occur after R rounds, where R is the base-2 logarithm of the total number of entrants, rounded upwards. Swiss brackets are sometimes run for a pre-determined number of rounds, with the winner being the person with the most points overall.
Modified Swiss system
While the Swiss System is rare in the Smash community, a modified version is in use in at SLAPAHO tournaments in Iowa City. In these tournaments, 3-5 rounds of preliminary swiss systems rounds are run. They are best of three, with a a 2-0 victory earning 4 points, and 2-1 victory earning 3 points, a 1-2 loss earning 1 point, and a 0-2 loss earning 0 points. After a set number of preliminary rounds, the top eight players are seeded according to points and a normal double or single elimination tournament commences.
Single elimination bracket
Single elimination tournaments are very uncommon for Super Smash Bros. and video games in general. Despite this, tournaments sometimes use them for side events like crew battles to save time. Despite single elimination's flaws, Japanese Smash 64 tournaments often use the single elimination format, even in large, national tournaments. Some early Melee tournaments used single elimination.
In a single elimination bracket, players are arranged into an hierarchical structure where matches are played between two entrants; the winner advances to play another player the next round and the loser is eliminated from the tournament. The player who wins the very last match of the bracket, after all other entrants have been eliminated, is the winner of the event, and the person who loses the final match finishes in second place. Most sports tournaments (like the NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship) use a single elimination format.
Single elimination brackets are often described in terms of the number of entrants playing in the bracket. Because half the remaining players are eliminated during each round of the bracket, the total number of rounds is based on the base-2 logarithm of the entrant count (rounded upwards). 8 players create a 3-round bracket; four rounds for 9 to 16 players; five rounds for 17-32 players; and so on. A bracket's size is usually defined as the smallest power of two that is greater than or equal to the number of entrants. Thus, a bracket with 47 entrants is referred to as a 64 man bracket, because 64 is the smallest power of two which is greater than 47. The size of the bracket also reflects the total number of matches throughout the entire bracket: for an n-size bracket, n-1 matches must be played in total.
Byes are used to fill positions in the bracket when the number of entrants is not a power of two. Any player facing a bye automatically advances to the next round. Byes are usually given to the top seeds in the bracket.
Single elimination brackets are rarely used at Smash tournaments for multiple reasons. One such reason players dislike single elimination is that half the players are eliminated having only played a single match (and every player overall gets to play significantly fewer matches). Another reason is that just having one bad match or encountering one bad matchup can result in a premature elimination for a player that would have placed better otherwise, thus giving less room for error, and overall less accuracy in the results. Single elimination also offers much less difference in placing, making them less useful for ranking players' performance.
Side events are events played on the side of the primary singles/doubles tournament. They are usually done for "fun", as well as to play under conditions that couldn't be done as its own standalone event, and to potentially attract players who wouldn't attend for just the primary singles/doubles tournament. Side events, being less serious in nature, usually have a lower entry fee to enter. Common examples of side events include:
Low and mid tier tournaments
A low tier tournament is a tournament that runs under standard rules, with the stipulation being players can only play low and bottom tier characters. What tiers are considered "low tier" is at TO discretion. The main purpose of a low tier tournament is to play as characters under tournament conditions that would otherwise be rare in standard tournaments, as comparatively few players use such characters in tournaments, and even fewer players, such as Gimpyfish and Mekos, have been able to place decently at major tournaments with low tier characters. Sopo, or a single lead Ice Climber is usually eligible for low-tier tournaments.
A mid tier tournament is similar to a low tier tournament, except characters in the middle tiers can be played, with those in the top and high tiers being banned. What tiers are considered "mid tier" is at TO discretion. The main purpose of mid tier tournaments is to have greater character variety than what a low tier tournament would allow, without having to see the abundance of top and high tier characters that dominate standard tournaments.
Occasionally crew battles are run as an official side event, where they can either be two large crews competing, or an entire tournament of many crews. Crews are usually composed of members of preexisting crews, players from the same region, and recruited by a draft, where a team captain drafts other players for their crew. In the past, crew battle tournaments had entry fees and payed out the top placing crews. However this practice largely ended around 2007.
Game mod tournaments
A common side event is a tournament played with one of the various game mods of Brawl and Melee, primarily done to see how the mod plays under tournament conditions. Project M and Brawl Minus are the most commonly played Brawl mods. Project M in particular became popular enough to grow into its own standalone tournament scene), with Brawl Plus fading into obscurity as it lost its initial support while other mods came into existence, and Balanced Brawl never enjoying a run as an often played Brawl mod.
Modding Melee is significantly less convenient for the end-user because the smash stack exploit isn't available, thus fewer Melee mods have been developed. However, SD Remix is a balance mod that is somewhat popular and has side tournaments run for it.
Free for all
Many early tournaments, most notably the Tournament Go series, featured FFA tournaments. It is unknown how these worked as the brackets have been lost to time.
Non-Smash Bros games
Some tournaments have either official or side events in other games outside of the Smash series. Usually such tournaments would play fighting games such as Street Figher or Marvel vs. Capcom or occasionally Smash Bros. fan games. Smash tournaments are increasingly becoming fixtures at "traditional" fighting game events including prominent ones like EVO or CEO. Some events that are primarily focused on "esports" games like League of Legends or Counter-Strike may include Smash tournaments. Such events have included Major League Gaming, Press Start, and DreamHack.